Historical Reprints Science Green Manuring : Principles And Practice

Green Manuring : Principles And Practice

Green Manuring : Principles And Practice
Catalog # SKU1753
Publisher TGS Publishing
Weight 1.00 lbs
Author Name Adrian J. Pieters


Green Manuring

Principles And Practice

Adrian J. Pieters

TGS Survival Books Reprint: AGRICULTURE has been, and as far as can now be foreseen, always will be, the basic industry of the human race. Men must be fed even though they have to do without luxuries. Some recent writers have viewed the race between population increase and food supplies with alarm; others have voiced the thoughtless optimism of ignorance. Neither extreme view is warranted.

From the Author:

Mankind will adjust itself to new conditions as they arise, but in order to do so with the least suffering, it is necessary that every avenue of approach to the problem of maintaining or increasing the productive power of the soil be investigated. It is because the writer is strongly of the opinion that the practice of green manuring is one of these avenues, and an important one, that he has been glad of the opportunity to bring together what is known about green manuring.

The writer is a compiler rather than an original worker in this field, but if his efforts shall result in fostering some interest among those in charge of agricultural research, he will feel well repaid. The future of our country depends first upon an adequate supply of food, and no other body of men has so much need for long vision as those entrusted with the duty of making certain that the generations of the twenty-first century shall not go hungry.

The value of green manuring lies in the fact that organic matter is worked into the soil and the organic matter in soil is recognized as being one of its most valuable constituents. The soil nitrogen is associated with the organic matter and the decay of this organic matter influences the availability of the soil minerals. For these reasons, it has seemed advisable to discuss the amount of organic matter in soils, its source, and the influences which operate for the destruction of or the increase of organic matter, as well as the part it plays in the soil. Such a discussion is a necessary preliminary to the study of green manuring.


GREEN manuring has been an agricultural practice among European farmers for more than two thousand years, but not until the nineteenth century did students of agriculture become interested in the processes by which plant material turned under became available for subsequent crops. Most of our scientific knowledge of plant nutrition, of the microörganisms of the soil, and of their importance in soil fertility has accumulated during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

It was during the nineteenth century, too, that the tremendous expansion of world food supplies took place, so that the available food of the world increased more rapidly than the population, and seemed to many to prove the fallacy of the Malthusian doctrine. In passing, attention may be called to the fact that "the law of Malthus has been often repudiated but never refuted."

Recent writers have made it clear that the end of this rapid expansion of food supplies is not far off, if indeed, the peak has not already been reached, and that it is time for men to take thought of the situation and consider what may be done to provide for an ever-increasing population. In the United States practically all of the good land, land that merely requires a reasonable rotation to maintain yields, is already in use and cannot be depended on for very large increases.

Many millions of acres of the poorer lands are either not in use or yield small returns, and it is by increasing the yields of these poorer lands that we must look for a part of the increased food supplies this country will use within the next fifty years.

Food Supply and Population.

-The general problem of the relation between food supply and population has various phases, some of the more important of which are production, transportation, economics of marketing, and control of population increase. A century ago, transportation was relatively more important than production. There was often famine in one region and plenty of food in another, but with no means of bringing the food to the hungry. Today transportation, except as a part of the economics of marketing, is not of such great importance, since that part of the general problem has been solved, and at present the economics of marketing is receiving most attention. Farmers, especially in the United States, find it, at present, not difficult to produce more than the market will absorb. Production is, however, the fundamental problem and it is a safe prediction that in a hundred years the production of more food per acre, and the utilization of every acre of land will be matters of concern.



Chapter I Introduction
Food Supply and Population.
Increased Yields Important.
Soil Deterioration.
Definition of Terms.
Elements Necessary to Plant Growth.
Organic Matter the Home of Microörganisms.
Man Cannot Change Natural Law but Can Take Advantage of Favorable Processes.

Chapter II History of Green Manuring
Green Manuring in China
In Greece and Rome.
In Mediaeval Europe.
In Germany.
In England.
In America.
History of Green-manure Crops.

Chapter III Organic Matter
Source of Organic Matter.
Amount in Soils.
Composition of Organic Matter.
Loss by Cultivation.
Measuring the Loss of Organic Matter.
Loss of Organic Matter Caused by the Use of Lime.
Effect of Minerals other than Lime.
Gain in Organic Matter from Green Manuring.
Role of Organic Matter in Soil.
Physical Effects.
Biochemical Effects.
Soil Organisms Break Down Organic Matter.
Classes of Soil Microörganisms.
Ammonifying Organisms.
Nitrite and Nitrate Bacteria.
Cellulose Decomposing Organisms.
Soil Microörganisms Consume Nitrogen.
Denitrifying Organisms.
Symbiotic and Non-symbiotic Nitrogen Fixers.
Numbers of Soil Organisms.
Number at Different Depths and at Different Seasons.

Chapter IV The Nitrogen Problem
Nitrogen Content of Soils.
Loss of Nitrogen in Soils.
Loss of Nitrogen is Greatest in First Years of Cultivation.
Loss of Nitrogen by Leaching.
Loss of Nitrogen Shown by Lysimeters.
Gain in Nitrogen.
Nitrates are Most Available to Crop Plants.
Influence of Conditions on Ammonification.
Conditions Affecting Nitrification.
Seasonal Changes in Nitrate Accumulation.
Effect of Cropping on Production of Nitrates.
Effect of Tillage, Lime, Gypsum, and Fertilizers on Ammonification and Nitrification.
Relation of Bacterial Numbers to Ammonification and Nitrification.
Effect of Small Quantities of Stable Manure on Ammonification and Nitrification.

Chapter V Nitrogen Fixation
Nitrogen Fixation through Legumes.
An Epoch-making Discovery.
How Much Nitrogen is Fixed through Legumes.
Determining the Nitrogen Gain by Chemical Analyses of Soil and Crop.
Summing up the Evidence.
Relative Weights of Tops and Roots and Nitrogen Content of Tops and Roots.
Variations in Nitrogen Content with the Growth of Plants.
Effect of Fertilizers on Nitrogen Fixation through Legumes.
Nitrogen Fixation in Leaves.
Non-Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation.
Amount of Nitrogen Fixed by Azotobacter Types.
The Addition or the Transformation of Nitrogen.
The Nitrogen Cycle.
Availability of Green Manure Nitrogen.

Chapter VI Chemical Composition of Green Manure Plants
Composition Affected by Conditions.
Average Composition of Plants.
Composition of Some Tropical Legumes.
Composition of Some Weeds.

Chapter VII Decomposition of Green Manures
Knowledge of What Goes on in the Soil Incomplete.
A General View of What Goes on in the Soil.
Rapid and Slow Decomposition.
Methods of Measuring the Rate of Decomposition.
Objections to These Methods.
Conditions that Affect Decomposition.
Climate, Soil Type and Fertility.
Effect of Lime and Minerals.
Effect of Stable Manure.
Age of Plant Material.
Effect of Composition, Dryness, and Character of Material.
Anaerobic Decomposition.
How Soon after Green Manure is Turned under Does Decomposition and Nitrate Accumulation Begin?
Decomposition as Related to Bacterial Numbers.
Carbon Dioxide as a Fertilizer.
Does the Decomposition of Green Manure Increase Soil "Acidity"?
Effect of Decomposition on the Germination of Seed.

Chapter VIII Benefits Other Than Increase In Nitrogen.
Types of Green Manuring
The Improvement of Soil Tilth.
Organic Matter Decreases the Plowing Draft.
Effect of the Decomposition of Organic Matter on the Solubility of Soil Mineral.
Shade Effect.
Effect of a Green-manure Crop on Rosette.
Root Action.
Depth to Which Roots Penetrate.
Legumes Leave a Larger Proportion of Root Residues than Cereals.
Effect of Legume Roots on the Solubility of Soil Minerals.
Decomposition Products.
Types of Green Manuring
Main Crop.
Companion Crop.
Catch Crops.
Winter Cover Crop.
When to Use a Green-manure Crop.
Choice of a Green-manure Crop.

Chapter IX Various Practical Considerations
Rate of Seeding.
Mixtures of Green Manures.
The Rotation of Green-manure Crops.
Inoculation for Legumes.
Methods of Inoculation.
Time and Depth to Plow Green Manures.
Plowing and Compacting.
Fertilizing the Green-manure Crop.
Use of Straw as a Green Manure.
The Application of Stable Manure to Green Manures.
Effect of Some Crops upon Those Following.
Some Limiting Factors in Green Manuring.
The Cost of Seed.
Possibility of Harboring Pests.
Frost Damage.
Effect of Shade on Green-manure Crops.
Water Requirements in Semi-arid Regions.
Enemies and Diseases of Green-manure Crops.
Acid Soils.
Over-stimulation of Growth.
Crops to Follow Green Manures.
Quantities of Green Matter Produced per Acre.

Chapter X Yields After Green Manuring
Effect of Green Manuring on Corn Yields.
Effect of Green Manuring on Yields of Small Grain.
Effect of Green Manuring on Cotton Yields.
Effect of Turning under Green Manures on the Yield of Potatoes.
Effect of a Green Manure on the Yield of Sugar Beets.
Effect of Green Manuring on the Yields of Sugar Cane.
Effect of Green Manuring on Tobacco.
Effect of a Green-manure Crop on the Yield of Truck Crops.
The Effect of Green Manuring on Orchard Crops.
Residual Effect of Green Manuring.

Chapter XI Crops Used For Green Manuring
The Principal Leguminous Green-manure Crops.
Red Clover (Trifolium pratense)
Seeding Red Clover.
Turning under Red Clover.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)
Seeding Alfalfa.
Turning under Alfalfa.
Alsike Clover (Trifolium hybridum)
Crimson Clover (Trifolium incarnatum)
Soils and Fertilizers.
Seeding Crimson Clover.
Berseem (T. alexandrinum)
Sweet Clovers (Melilotus spp.)
White Sweet Clover (Melilotus alba).
The Yellow Sweet Clover (M. officinalis)
Method of Using Sweet Clover as Green Manure.
Soils and Climate for Sweet Clover.
Seed and Seeding.
When to Turn under Sweet Clover.
Annual White Sweet Clover.
The Yellow Annual Melilot (M. indica).
Cowpeas (Vigna sinensis)
Turning under Cowpeas.
Soybeans (Soja Max)
Seeding and Inoculating.
Velvet Beans (Stizolobium deeringianum)
Seeding Velvet Beans.
Vetches (Vicia spp.)
Common Vetch (Vicia sativa).
Seeding Common Vetch.
Hairy Vetch (V. villosa).
Seeding Hairy Vetch.
Purple Vetch (V. atropurpurea).
Hungarian Vetch (V. pannonica).
Woolly Podded Vetch (V. dasycarpa).
Horse Bean (Vicia faba).
Other Vetches.
Bur Clovers (Medicago spp.)
Seeding Bur Clover.
Field Peas (Pisum arvense)
Seeding Field Peas.
Plowing under Field Peas.
Other Legumes
Beggar Weed (Desmodium purpureum).
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grcecum).
Tangier Peas (Lathyrus tingitanus).
Dalea (Dalea alopecuroides).
Leguminous Green-Manure Crops Used In Europe But Not In America
White Lupine (Lupinus albus).
Yellow Lupine (L. luteus).
Blue Lupine (L. angustifolius).
Serradella (Ornithopus sativus).
Black Medic (Medicago lupulina).
Tropical and Semi-Tropical Green-Manure Legumes
Genge (Aslralagus sinicus).
Sunn (Crotalaria juncea).
Other Crotalarias.
Sesbania (Sesbania aculeata).
Pigeon Pea, Porto Rican Pea, Arhar in India (Cajan indicum).
Boga-medeloa (Tephrosia Candida)
Dadap (Erythrina lithosperma).
The Sau (Albizzia stipulata)
Non-Leguminous Green-Manure Crops
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

Chapter XII Green Manuring in the United States
Green Manuring In The South
Green Manuring for Corn
Green Manuring for Cotton.
Green Manuring for Truck Crops.
Green Manuring for Sugar Cane.
Green Manuring in Pecan Orchards.
Green Manuring in Citrus Groves in Florida.
Green Manuring On The North Atlantic Seaboard
Green Manuring for Potatoes and Truck Crops.
Green Manuring for Tobacco.
Green Manuring in Orchards.
Green Manuring In The Northeastern United States
Green Manuring for Corn.
Green Manuring for Potatoes and Sugar Beets.
Green Manuring for Wheat.
Green Manuring in Orchards.
Green Manuring In The Great Plains
Green Manuring On The Pacific Coast
Green Manuring in Washington and Oregon.
Southern California Citrus Groves.
Green Manuring in Central and Northern California.
In Southeastern California.
Green Manuring in New Mexico and Arizona.

Chapter XIII Green Manuring In Other Countries
Green Manuring in Germany.
Green Manuring in England.
Green Manuring in Holland, Belgium and Denmark.
Green Manuring in France.
Green Manuring in Italy.
Green Manuring In Asia And In The East Indies
China and Japan
Green Manuring in India.
Green Manuring for Rice.
Green Manuring for Wheat, Tobacco and Other Crops.
Green Manuring in Permanent Plantations.
Green Manuring for Tea.
Green Manuring in the Malay Peninsula.
Green Manuring on Plantations in Java.
Green Manuring In Africa, Oceania And In The West Indies
Green Manuring in Africa.
Green Manuring in the Pacific Islands.
Green Manuring in Porto Rico.

Chapter XIV Economics of Green Manuring
Should Legumes be Fed or Turned Under?
Cost of and Returns from a Green-manure Crop.
Relative Fertilizer Value of Crimson Clover Fed or Turned under.
Green Manures to Supplement Stable Manure.
Selling the Hay or Turning the Legume Under.
A Comparison of Cost and Value of Green Manure and Stable Manure.
Cost and Value of a Sweet-clover Green-manure Crop

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