Ancient Mysteries Soap-Making Manual

Soap-Making Manual

Soap-Making Manual
Catalog # SKU3336
Publisher TGS Publishing
Weight 1.00 lbs
Author Name E. G. Thomssen
ISBN 10: 1610336941
ISBN 13: 9781610336949


Soap-Making Manual

A Practical Handbook
on the Raw Materials,
Their Manipulation, Analysis
and Control in the
Modern Soap Plant.

E. G. Thomssen

Soap is ordinarily thought of as the common cleansing agent well known to everyone. In a general and strictly chemical sense this term is applied to the salts of the non-volatile fatty acids.

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These salts are not only those formed by the alkali metals, sodium and potassium, but also those formed by the heavy metals and alkaline earths. Thus we have the insoluble soaps of lime and magnesia formed when we attempt to wash in "hard water"; again aluminum soaps are used extensively in polishing materials and to thicken lubricating oils; ammonia or "benzine" soaps are employed among the dry cleaners.

Commonly, however, when we speak of soap we limit it to the sodium or potassium salt of a higher fatty acid.

It is very generally known that soap is made by combining a fat or oil with a water solution of sodium hydroxide (caustic soda lye), or potassium hydroxide (caustic potash). Sodium soaps are always harder than potassium soaps, provided the same fat or oil is used in both cases.

The detergent properties of soap are due to the fact that it acts as an alkali regulator, that is, when water comes into contact with soap, it undergoes what is called hydrolytic dissociation. This means that it is broken down by water into other substances. Just what these substances are is subject to controversy, though it is presumed caustic alkali and the acid alkali salt of the fatty acids are formed.

Oils And Fats. There is no sharp distinction between fat and oil. By "oil" the layman has the impression of a liquid which at warm temperature will flow as a slippery, lubricating, viscous fluid; by "fat" he understands a greasy, solid substance unctuous to the touch. It thus becomes necessary to differentiate the oils and fats used in the manufacture of soap.

Inasmuch as a soap is the alkali salt of a fatty acid, the oil or fat from which soap is made must have as a constituent part, these fatty acids. Hydrocarbon oils or paraffines, included in the term "oil," are thus useless in the process of soap-making, as far as entering into chemical combination with the caustic alkalis is concerned. The oils and fats which form soap are those which are a combination of fatty acids and glycerine, the glycerine being obtained as a by-product to the soap-making industry.

230 pages - 8½ x 11softcover
ISBN-10: 1610336941
ISBN-13: 9781610336949

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