Historical Reprints Science Hindu-Arabic Numerals

Hindu-Arabic Numerals

Hindu-Arabic Numerals
Catalog # SKU1624
Publisher TGS Publishing
Weight 1.00 lbs
Author Name David Eugene Smith & Louis Charles Karpinski
 
$17.95
Quantity

Description

Hindu-Arabic Numerals

by
David Eugene Smith &
Louis Charles Karpinski

All great civilizations of any era can be attributed to the knowledge level of mathematics the leaders and the populace had acquired. This knowledge and intelligence was utilized in all the great wonders of the world, past and present. Civilizations rise and fall with the knowledge of logic, that mathematics provides.

No serious truthseeker or researcher can investigate the past great civilizations and their mysteries without a full knowledge of the mathematics they utilized and an understanding of how these ancients depended on math.

Preface

So familiar are we with the numerals that bear the misleading name of Arabic, and so extensive is their use in Europe and the Americas, that it is difficult for us to realize that their general acceptance in the transactions of commerce is a matter of only the last four centuries, and that they are unknown to a very large part of the human race to-day. It seems strange that such a labor-saving device should have struggled for nearly a thousand years after its system of place value was perfected before it replaced such crude notations as the one that the Roman conqueror made substantially universal in Europe.

Such, however, is the case, and there is probably no one who has not at least some slight passing interest in the story of this struggle. To the mathematician and the student of civilization the interest is generally a deep one; to the teacher of the elements of knowledge the interest may be less marked, but nevertheless it is real; and even the business man who makes daily use of the curious symbols by which we express the numbers of commerce, cannot fail to have some appreciation for the story of the rise and progress of these tools of his trade.

This story has often been told in part, but it is a long time since any effort has been made to bring together the fragmentary narrations and to set forth the general problem of the origin and development of these numerals. In this little work we have attempted to state the history of these forms in small compass, to place before the student materials for the investigation of the problems involved, and to express as clearly as possible the results of the labors of scholars who have studied the subject in different parts of the world. We have had no theory to exploit, for the history of mathematics has seen too much of this tendency already, but as far as possible we have weighed the testimony and have set forth what seem to be the reasonable conclusions from the evidence at hand.


CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I - EARLY IDEAS OF THEIR ORIGIN
CHAPTER II - EARLY HINDU FORMS WITH NO PLACE VALUE
CHAPTER III - LATER HINDU FORMS, WITH A PLACE VALUE
CHAPTER IV - THE SYMBOL ZERO
CHAPTER V - NUMERALS INTO EUROPE BY BOETHIUS
CHAPTER VI - THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NUMERALS AMONG THE ARABS
CHAPTER VII - THE DEFINITE INTRODUCTION OF THE NUMERALS INTO EUROPE
CHAPTER VIII - THE SPREAD OF THE NUMERALS IN EUROPE


Softcover, 8¼" x 10¾", 140+ pages
Perfect-Bound - Large Print

: *
: *
: *
Type the characters you see in the picture:


*
Farmer's Daughter
Her Secret Life
Texan Star, The
 
Pledged to the Dead
Incredible Wooden Map
Constructive Psychology