Historical Reprints Religion Pagan Christs : Studies In Comparative Hierology

Pagan Christs : Studies In Comparative Hierology

Pagan Christs : Studies In Comparative Hierology
Catalog # SKU1757
Publisher TGS Publishing
Weight 3.00 lbs
Author Name John M. Robertson


Pagan Christs

Studies In
Comparative Hierology

John M. Robertson

In today's current climate of 'fear' and 'terrorism', Pagan Christs is desparately needed research into the historical gods and christs, all born and created by mankind out of FEAR. Fear is the catalyst which the church and all religions thrive on and survive.

From the Author:

Among the scholars who reconstruct Christian origins at will, some profess to apply a critical "method" or set of methods by which they can put down all challenges of the reality of their subject-matter. Their general procedure is simply that of scholastics debating in vacuo, assuming what they please, and rejecting what they please. It is the method by which whole generations of their predecessors elucidated the details of the sacerdotal system of the Hebrews in the wilderness, until Colenso-set doubting about sacred tradition by an intelligent Zulu-established arithmetically the truth of Voltaire's verdict that the whole thing was impossible.

Then the experts, under cover of orthodox outcry, changed the venue, avowing no shame for their long aberration. In due time the modern specialists, or their successors, will realise that their main positions as to Christian origins are equally fabulous; but they or their successors will continue to be conscious of their professional perspicacity, and solemnly or angrily contemptuous of all lay criticism of their "method." "Wir Gelehrten vom Fach," they still call themselves in Germany-"we scholars by profession"-thus disposing of all lay criticism.

It is not surprising that alongside of this vain demonstration of the historicity of myth there spreads, among determined believers in the historicity, an uneasy disposition to ground faith on the very "to believe," called by the name of "spiritual experience."


In saying that fear first made the Gods, or made the first Gods, we imply that other God-making forces came into play later; and no dispute arises when this is affirmed of the process of making the Gods of the higher religions, in their later forms. Even here, at the outset, the play of gratitude is no such ennobling exercise as to involve much lifting of the moral standpoint; and even in the higher religions gratitude to the God is often correlative with fear of the evil spirits whom he wards off. This factor is constantly present in the gospels and in the polemic of the early Fathers; and has never disappeared from religious life.

The pietist who in our own day pours out thanks to "Providence" for saving him in the earthquake in which myriads have perished is no more ethically attractive than philosophically persuasive; and the gratitude of savages and barbarians for favours received and expected can hardly have been more refined. It might even be said that a cruder egoism presides over the making of Good Gods than over the birth of the Gods of Fear; the former having their probable origin in an individualistic as against a tribal instinct. But it may be granted that the God who ostensibly begins as a private guardian angel or family spirit may become the germ of a more ethical cultus than that of the God generically feared. And the process chronically recurs.

There is, indeed, no generic severance between the Gods of fear and the Gods of love, most deities of the more advanced races having both aspects: nevertheless, certain specified deities are so largely shaped by men's affections that they might recognisably be termed the Beloved Gods.

It will on the whole be helpful to an understanding of the subject if we name such Gods, in terms of current conceptions, the Christs of the world's pantheon. That title, indeed, no less fitly includes figures which do not strictly rank as Gods; but in thus widely relating it we shall be rather elucidating than obscuring religious history. Only by some such collocation of ideas can the inquirer surmount his presuppositions and take the decisive step towards seeing the religions of mankind as alike man-made. On the other hand, he is not thereby committed to any one view in the field of history proper; he is left free to argue for a historical Christ as for a historical Buddha.

Even on the ground of the concept of evolution, however, scientific agreement is still hindered by persistence in the old classifications. The trouble meets us on one line in arbitrary fundamental separations between mythology and religion, early religion and early ethics, religion and magic, genuine myths and non-genuine myths. On another line it meets us in the shape of a sudden and local reopening of the problem of theistic intervention in a quasi-philosophical form, or a wilful repudiation of naturalistic method when the inquiry reaches current beliefs.

Thus results which were reached by disinterested scholarship a generation ago are sought to be subverted, not by a more thorough scholarship, but by keeping away from the scholarly problem and suggesting a new standard of values, open to no rational tests. It may be well, therefore, to clear the ground so far as may be of such dispute at the outset by stating and vindicating the naturalistic position in regard to it.


Preface To The Second Edition
Part I. The Rationale of Religion

  Chapter I. The Naturalness of All Belief
     * 1. Origin of the Gods from Fear
     * 2. All Belief Results of Reasoning
     * 3. Dr. Jevons' Theories of Religious Evolution
     * 4. Scientific View of the Religious Evolution
     * 5. Dr. Frazer's Definition
     * 6. The Scientific Induction
     * 7. Dr. Jevons' Series of Self-Contradictions
     * 8. His Contradictory Doctrine of the Conditions of the Survival of Religion
     * 9. The Continuity of Religious Phenomena
     * 10. Dr. Frazer's Sociological Vindication of the Sorcerer
     * 11. The Beginning of the End of Religion
     * 12. Historic View of Ancestor Worship
     * 13. The Authoritarian Element a Mark of Religion
     * 14. Definition of Religion

  Chapter II. Comparison and Appraisement of Religions
     * 1. Early Forces of Reform.
     * 2. Reform as a Religious Process.
     * 3. Polytheism and Monotheism.
     * 4. Hebrews and Babylonians.
     * 5. Forces of Religious Evolution.
     * 6. The Hebrew Evolution.
     * 7. Post-Exilic Phases.
     * 8. Revival and Disintegration.
     * 9. Conclusion.

Part II. Secondary God-Making

  Chapter I. The Sacrificed Saviour-God
     * 1. Totemism and Sacraments.
     * 2. Theory and Ritual of Human Sacrifice.
     * 3. The Christian Crucifixion.
     * 4. Vogue of Human Sacrifice.
     * 5. The Divinity of the Victim.
     * 6. The Cannibal Sacrament.
     * 7. The Semitic Antecedents.
     * 8. The Judaic Evolution.
     * 9. Specific Survivals in Judaism.
     * 10. The Pre-Christian Jesus-God.
     * 11. Private Jewish Eucharists.
     * 12. The Eucharist in Orthodox Judaism.
     * 13. Special Features of the Crucifixion Myth.
     * 14. Possible Historical Elements.
     * 15. The Gospel Mystery-Play.
     * 16. The Mystery-Play and the Cultus.
     * 17. Further Pagan Adaptations.
     * 18. Synopsis and Conclusion: Genealogy of Human Sacrifice and Sacrament.

  Chapter II. The Teaching God
     * 1. Primary and Secondary Ideas.
     * 2. The Logos.
     * 3. Derivations of the Christian Logos.
     * 4. The Search for a Historical Jesus.
     * 5. The Critical Problem.
     * 6. Collapse of the Constructive Case.
     * 7. Parallel Problems.
     * 8. The Problem of Buddhist Origins.
     * 9. Buddhism and Buddhas.
     * 10. The Buddhist Cruces.
     * 11. Sociological Clues.
     * 12. Buddhism and Asoka.
     * 13. The Buddha Myth.
     * 14. The Problem of Manichæus.
     * 15. The Manichean Solution.
     * 16. The Case of Apollonius of Tyana.

Part III. Mithraism

     * 1. Introductory.
     * 2. Beginnings of Cult.
     * 3. Zoroastrianism.
     * 4. Evolution of Mithra.
     * 5. The Process of Syncretism.
     * 6. Symbols of Mithra.
     * 7. The Cultus.
     * 8. The Creed.
     * 9. Mithraism and Christianity.
     * 10. Further Christian Parallels.
     * 11. The Vogue of Mithraism.
     * 12. Absorption in Christianity.
     * 13. The Point of Junction.

Part IV. The Religions of Ancient America

     * 1. American Racial Origins.
     * 2. Aztecs and Peruvians.
     * 3. Primitive Religion and Human Sacrifice.
     * 4. The Mexican Cultus.
     * 5. Mexican Sacrifices and Cannibal Sacraments.
     * 6. Mexican Ethics.
     * 7. The Mexican White Christ.
     * 8. The Fatality of the Priesthood.
     * 9. The Religion of Peru.
     * 10. Conclusion.

Appendix A The Eating of the Crucified Human Sacrifice.
Appendix B Dramatic and Ritual Survivals.
Appendix C Replies To Criticisms
     * 1. General Opposition: The Hibbert Journal.
     * 2. The Rev. Alfred Ernest Crawley.
     * 3. The Rev. Dr. St. Clair Tisdall.
     * 4. The Rev. Father Martindale.
     * 5. Dr. J. Estlin, Carpenter.
     * 6. Professor Carl Clemen.

Softcover, 8¼" x 10¾", 480+ pages
Perfect-Bound Large Print Edition (14 point font)

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